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A Comprehensive Guide to Understanding Medical Data

Introduction

Medical data is the foundation of contemporary healthcare. It encompasses extensive information crucial for patient well-being, research, policy formulation, and the progress of medical science and technology.

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In the digital transformation era of healthcare, the breadth and intricacy of medical data have substantially expanded. Expected to grow at about 25% annually from 2019 to 2025, the digital health industry is set to reach around 660 billion dollars by 2025.

This comprehensive guide explores what is considered medical data, its various types, profound importance, challenges, and the ethical considerations surrounding its collection and utilization.

Types of Medical Data

1. Electronic Health Records (EHRs)

Definition and Scope: Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are sophisticated electronic systems that consolidate an individual’s complete medical history and health information in a digital format. They encompass a wide spectrum of data points, ranging from basic personal details to intricate clinical data.

EHRs offer a holistic view of a patient’s health journey, encapsulating critical information that includes medical history, diagnoses, treatments, prescriptions, lab results, imaging data, immunization records, allergies, family medical history, and more.

Components of EHRs:

  • Medical History: EHRs include an individual’s past medical conditions, surgeries, hospitalizations, and chronic diseases. This historical context provides healthcare providers with insights into a patient’s health trajectory.
  • Diagnoses and Treatments: EHRs document the diagnoses made by healthcare professionals and corresponding treatment plans and interventions. This information ensures that subsequent healthcare encounters are well-informed and cohesive.
  • Medications and Prescriptions: EHRs maintain an up-to-date record of all medications a patient is taking, including dosages, frequencies, and any reported side effects. This helps prevent harmful drug interactions or duplications.
  • Lab Results and Imaging Data: EHRs integrate laboratory test results, radiology reports, and medical images such as X-rays, MRIs, and CT scans. This aggregated data assists healthcare providers in assessing a patient’s condition accurately.
  • Immunization Records: EHRs store records of vaccinations received by the patient, aiding healthcare professionals in ensuring that necessary vaccinations are administered on schedule.
  • Allergies and Adverse Reactions: EHRs maintain information about a patient’s known allergies, adverse reactions to medications, and any other sensitivities that may impact treatment decisions.
  • Family and Social History: EHRs often include details about the patient’s family medical history and social factors that can influence health, such as lifestyle habits, occupation, and environmental exposures.

2. Medical Imaging Data

Definition and Significance: Medical imaging data represents a pivotal aspect of modern healthcare, as it provides healthcare professionals with non-invasive visual insights into a patient’s internal structures.

These images, produced through technologies such as X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) scans, ultrasounds, and nuclear medicine scans, play an essential role in diagnosing, monitoring, and treating various medical conditions.

Types of Medical Imaging:

  • X-rays (Radiography): X-ray imaging captures images of bones, tissues, and organs using ionizing radiation. This technique is commonly used to diagnose fractures, lung conditions, and certain tumors.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): MRI employs strong magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of internal structures. It is particularly useful for examining soft tissues like the brain, joints, and organs.
  • Computed Tomography (CT) Scans: CT scans combine X-ray technology with computer processing to produce cross-sectional body images. They are valuable for assessing injuries, tumors, and complex anatomical structures.
  • Ultrasound Imaging: Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to create real-time images of organs, blood vessels, and developing fetuses. It is commonly used in obstetrics, cardiology, and abdominal imaging.
  • Nuclear Medicine Scans: Nuclear medicine involves administering a small amount of radioactive tracer material to capture images of physiological processes within the body. This technique detects diseases such as cancer and assesses organ function.

3. Clinical Trial Data

Definition and Purpose: Clinical trial data comprises the structured and comprehensive information collected during rigorously designed research studies involving human participants.

These studies, known as clinical trials, are conducted to assess the safety, efficacy, and potential benefits of new drugs, medical devices, treatment strategies, and interventions.

This type of medical data forms the bedrock upon which medical advancements are built, providing crucial insights into the effects of novel medical interventions on human health.

Key Components of Clinical Trial Data:

  • Participant Information: Clinical trial data includes demographic information about the participants, such as age, gender, ethnicity, and relevant medical history. This information helps researchers analyze the impact of the intervention on different subpopulations.
  • Intervention Details: The data outlines the specifics of the intervention being studied, such as drug dosages, treatment protocols, medical devices, or procedures used.
  • Outcomes and Endpoints: Clinical trial data documents the predetermined outcomes and endpoints researchers measure to assess the intervention’s effectiveness. These could range from symptom relief and improved quality of life to disease progression and survival rates.
  • Adverse Events: Any adverse events, side effects, or complications experienced by participants during the trial are meticulously recorded. This data helps evaluate the intervention’s safety profile.
  • Control Group Data: In randomized controlled trials, where participants are divided into intervention and control groups, data from both groups are collected for comparative analysis.
  • Follow-up Data: Clinical trial data often includes long-term follow-up information to assess the intervention’s effects over an extended period.

4. Genomic and Genetic Data

Definition and Significance: Genomic and genetic data encapsulate the blueprint of an individual’s genetic makeup, providing insights into their unique genetic composition.

This information includes DNA sequences, genetic mutations, variations, and gene expression patterns.

Understanding genomic and genetic data is pivotal for unlocking the mysteries of heredity, deciphering inherited diseases, predicting disease risks, and tailoring personalized medical treatments.

Components of Genomic and Genetic Medical Data:

  • DNA Sequences: Genomic data comprises the order of nucleotide bases (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) within an individual’s DNA. These sequences contain the genetic instructions necessary for building and maintaining the body.
  • Genetic Mutations and Variations: Genetic data includes information about mutations (changes in DNA sequences) and variations (variations in nucleotide bases) contributing to an individual’s unique genetic identity. Some variations are associated with specific traits, while others may influence disease susceptibility.
  • Gene Expression Patterns: Genetic data also encompasses gene expression patterns, which indicate which genes are active or “turned on” in specific cells or tissues. These patterns play a crucial role in regulating bodily functions and disease development.

5. Wearable and Sensor Data

Definition and Significance: The integration of wearable devices and sensors into healthcare has ushered in an era of real-time health monitoring. These technologies collect physiological and environmental data, such as heart rate, physical activity, sleep patterns, temperature, etc.

Wearable and sensor data empower individuals to proactively manage their health, while healthcare providers can harness this data for early disease detection and personalized preventive interventions.

Types of Wearable and Sensor Data:

  • Heart Rate Monitoring: Wearable devices equipped with optical sensors track heart rate, offering insights into resting heart rate, heart rate variability, and responses to exercise or stress.
  • Physical Activity Tracking: Wearables capture data on steps taken, distance covered, calories burned, and exercise intensity. This information encourages individuals to maintain an active lifestyle.
  • Sleep Analysis: Wearable sensors monitor sleep patterns, recording metrics like sleep duration, sleep stages (light, deep, REM), and disturbances. This data aids in improving sleep quality.
  • Temperature Measurement: Wearable devices and smart thermometers track body temperature variations, aiding in detecting fever or changes associated with ovulation.
  • Blood Pressure Monitoring: Some wearables use optical sensors to estimate blood pressure, providing insights into cardiovascular health.

6. Health Monitoring Data

Definition and Significance: Health monitoring data encompasses information gathered from medical devices designed to manage and track chronic conditions. These devices are crucial in ongoing health management, providing real-time data on vital parameters and disease-specific metrics.

Health monitoring data includes a wide range of devices, such as continuous glucose monitors for diabetes, blood pressure monitors for hypertension, cardiac rhythm monitors for heart conditions, and more.

This data empowers both patients and healthcare professionals to optimize treatment plans and enhance overall health outcomes collaboratively.

Examples of Health Monitoring Devices:

  • Continuous Glucose Monitors (CGMs): CGMs track glucose levels in real-time, providing valuable insights for individuals with diabetes to manage their blood sugar levels more effectively
  • Blood Pressure Monitors: Blood pressure monitors offer continuous or on-demand measurements of a patient’s blood pressure, which is crucial for managing hypertension and preventing related complications.
  • Cardiac Rhythm Monitors: Devices like Holter monitors or implantable loop recorders track heart rhythm abnormalities, helping diagnose and manage arrhythmias and other cardiac conditions.
  • Pulse Oximeters: Pulse oximeters measure blood oxygen saturation levels and pulse rate, which are vital for monitoring respiratory conditions and overall well-being.
  • Peak Flow Meters: These devices help individuals with asthma monitor their lung function and identify potential exacerbations.
  • Insulin Pumps: Insulin pumps are used by people with diabetes to deliver precise insulin doses, promoting tighter glucose control.

7. Administrative Data

Definition and Significance: Administrative medical data encompasses a broad range of information related to healthcare systems’ operational and financial aspects.

This data includes details such as billing, insurance claims, patient demographics, hospital admissions, discharge records, and more.

While not directly related to clinical care, administrative data plays a crucial role in ensuring the smooth functioning of healthcare facilities, accurate financial transactions, and effective healthcare management.

Components of Administrative Data:

  • Patient Demographics: Administrative data includes essential information about patients, such as names, addresses, contact details, dates of birth, and gender. These details aid in patient identification and record-keeping.
  • Insurance Information: Administrative data contains details about a patient’s insurance coverage, including policy numbers, coverage dates, and insurance providers. This information is vital for processing insurance claims and coordinating benefits.
  • Billing and Claims Data: Administrative data includes records of medical procedures, tests, and treatments performed on patients. These records form the basis for generating bills, submitting claims to insurance companies, and managing financial transactions.
  • Hospital Admissions and Discharge Records: Administrative data tracks patient admissions, discharges, and transfers within healthcare facilities. These records facilitate patient flow management and resource allocation.
  • Appointment Scheduling: Administrative data includes information about patient appointments, allowing healthcare facilities to manage patient schedules efficiently.
  • Medical Coding and Terminology: Administrative data encompasses medical codes and terminology used for diagnosis, procedures, and services. These codes are essential for accurate billing, insurance claims, and data analysis.

Importance of Medical Data

  • Patient Care and Treatment: Medical data serves as a comprehensive repository of a patient’s medical history, aiding healthcare providers in making accurate diagnoses, devising personalized treatment plans, and avoiding adverse interactions.
  • Medical Research: Medical data is the bedrock of scientific research, providing the empirical evidence required to develop innovative treatments, medications, and medical technologies. It enables researchers to explore patterns, correlations, and causal relationships within diverse datasets.
  • Public Health: Aggregated and anonymized medical data plays a pivotal role in identifying trends in disease prevalence, outbreaks, and population health patterns. This data assists public health authorities in formulating effective interventions and policy recommendations.
  • Healthcare Policy: Medical data informs the development of healthcare policies and regulations. Evidence-based policies ensure that healthcare systems deliver safe, equitable, and efficient care to populations.
  • Personalized Medicine: Genomic and genetic data facilitate the era of personalized medicine, where treatment plans can be tailored to an individual’s genetic predispositions, enhancing the likelihood of positive treatment outcomes.

Challenges and Ethical Considerations

  • Privacy and Security: Medical data often contains highly sensitive personal information, raising concerns about unauthorized access, data breaches, and potential identity theft. Stringent security measures are essential to safeguard patient privacy.
  • Data Sharing and Consent: The sharing of medical data for research purposes must strike a balance between advancing medical knowledge and respecting patient consent and privacy. Anonymization techniques are often employed to mitigate privacy risks.
  • Data Accuracy and Integrity: Ensuring the accuracy and integrity of medical data is crucial to prevent misdiagnoses, incorrect treatments, and compromised research outcomes. Data validation processes are imperative to maintain data quality.
  • Data Standardization: The lack of standardized data formats, coding systems, and medical terminology challenges data interoperability and exchange between different healthcare systems. This can hinder seamless care coordination and research collaboration.
  • Bias and Fairness: Biases in medical data, whether stemming from patient demographics, geographic location, or medical facilities, can lead to healthcare disparities and inequities. Addressing these biases is essential for fair and just healthcare delivery.
  • Secondary Use of Data: The secondary use of medical data for purposes beyond its original intent, such as marketing, insurance decisions, or targeted advertising, raises ethical concerns regarding patient autonomy and consent.

Conclusion

In the evolving healthcare landscape, medical data emerges as a crucial asset with far-reaching implications. Its diverse types play distinct roles in patient care, research, policy-making, and the pursuit of personalized medicine.

However, harnessing the benefits of medical data requires a mindful approach that prioritizes privacy, security, accuracy, and equity.

By understanding the various types of medical data, recognizing its significance, and navigating the ethical considerations surrounding its collection and use, we can leverage this invaluable resource to improve healthcare outcomes, foster medical breakthroughs, and enhance the well-being of individuals and communities alike.

Looking for a utility company for your medical data? Try iCure for free.

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Terms of use

www.iCure.com

1. RECITALS

ICure SA is incorporated in Geneva, Switzerland, with a registered office at Rue de la Fontaine 7, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland registered in the commercial registry under CHE-270.492.477 (“iCure”).

These Terms of Use constitute a legally binding agreement made between you, whether personally or on behalf of an entity (“you”) and iCure SA (“we,” “us” or “our”), concerning your access to and use of the https://www.icure.com website as well as any other media form, media channel, mobile website or mobile application related, linked, or otherwise connected thereto (collectively, the “Website”).

When you accept, these Terms form a legally binding agreement between you and iCure. If you are entering into these Terms on behalf of an entity, such as your employer or the company you work for, you represent that you have the legal authority to bind that entity.

PLEASE READ THESE TERMS CAREFULLY. BY REGISTERING FOR, ACCESSING, BROWSING, AND/OR OTHERWISE USING THE iCURE, YOU ACKNOWLEDGE THAT YOU HAVE READ, UNDERSTOOD, AND AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THESE TERMS. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THESE TERMS, DO NOT ACCESS, BROWSE, OR OTHERWISE USE THE ICURE WEBSITE.

iCure may, in its sole discretion, elect to suspend or terminate access to, or use of the iCure to anyone who violates these Terms.

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The original language of these Terms and Use is English. In case of other translations provided by iCure, the English version shall prevail.

2. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

The Content of the documentation stated on this Website is ours. All Marks, Content that concern iCure cannot be copied, reproduced, aggregated, republished, uploaded, posted, publicly displayed, encoded, translated, transmitted, distributed, sold, licensed, or otherwise exploited for any commercial purpose whatsoever, without our express prior written permission.

Provided that you are eligible to use the Website, you are granted a limited license to access and use the Website and to download or print a copy of any portion of the Content to which you have properly gained access solely for your personal, non-commercial use. We reserve all rights not expressly granted to you in and to the Website, the Content, and the Marks.

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By using the Website, you represent and warrant that:

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4. PROHIBITED ACTIVITIES

You may not access or use the Website for any purpose other than that for which we make the Website available. The Website may not be used in connection with any commercial endeavors except those that are specifically endorsed or approved between you and iCure.

As a user of the Website, you agree not to:

  1. Publishing any Website material in any other media.
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  8. Using this Website to engage in any advertising or marketing.

5. NO WARRANTIES

This Website is provided “as is,” with all faults, and iCure expresses no representations or warranties, of any kind related to this Website or the materials contained on this Website. Also, nothing contained on this Website shall be interpreted as advising you.

6. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY

In no event shall iCure, nor any of its officers, directors, and employees shall be held liable for anything arising out of or in any way connected with your use of this Website whether such liability is under this agreement. iCure, including its officers, directors, and employees shall not be held liable for any indirect, consequential, or special liability arising out of or in any way related to your use of this Website.

7. INDEMNIFICATION

You hereby fully indemnify iCure from and against any and/or all liabilities, costs, demands, causes of action, damages, and expenses arising in any way related to your breach of any of the provisions of these Terms.

8. SEVERABILITY

If any provision of these Terms is found to be invalid under any applicable law, such provisions shall be deleted without affecting the remaining provisions herein.

9. VARIATION OF TERMS

iCure is permitted to revise these Terms at any time as it sees fit, and by using this Website you are expected to review these Terms on a regular basis.

10. ASSIGNMENT

iCure is allowed to assign, transfer, and subcontract its rights and/or obligations under these Terms without any notification. However, you are not allowed to assign, transfer, or subcontract any of your rights and/or obligations under these Terms.

11. ENTIRE AGREEMENT

These Terms constitute the entire agreement between iCure and you in relation to your use of this Website and supersede all prior agreements and understandings.

12. GOVERNING LAW & JURISDICTION

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of Switzerland, without regard to its conflict of law provisions.

The parties shall attempt to solve the matter amicably in mutual negotiations. In case of a non-amicable settlement that has been found between the parties, the Court of Geneva will be competent.

13. PRIVACY

Please refer to our Privacy Policy and Cookie Notice for the Data that we collected from the contact form and the Matomo cookie.

IMAGE ATTRIBUTION

In the development of our website, we have incorporated various icons to enhance visual appeal and convey information effectively. We extend our sincere appreciation to the talented designers and contributors who have generously shared their work with the community. Below is an acknowledgment of the resources we have utilized:

SVG Repo: A repository SVG icons. We integrated their icons into our website. Specifically:

  1. Work by author vmware, Key Badged SVG Vector under MIT License
  2. Work by author Twitter, Cloud SVG Vector under MIT License
  3. Work by author Garuda Technology, Node Js SVG Vector and React SVG Vector under MIT License

Thanks to the authors who contributed to the: SVGRepo, Unsplash, Maxipanels community.

iCure features logos from various products, libraries, technologies, and frameworks that our project interacts with. It is important to note that iCure does not hold any proprietary rights to these logos or the products they represent.

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Contact: contact@icure.com

Last update: February 20th, 2024.

Privacy Policy

www.iCure.com

iCure SA (iCure) is incorporated in Geneva, Switzerland, with a registered office at Rue de la Fontaine 7, 1204 Geneva, Switzerland registered in the commercial registry under CHE-270.492.477.

This Privacy Policy describes the information that we collect through our Website (https://www.icure.com), how we use such information, and the steps we take to protect such information. We strongly recommend that you read the Privacy Policy carefully.

BY VISITING THE WEBSITE, YOU ACCEPT THE PRIVACY PRACTICES DESCRIBED IN THIS PRIVACY POLICY. IF YOU DO NOT ACCEPT THE TERMS OF THE PRIVACY POLICY, YOU ARE DIRECTED TO DISCONTINUE ACCESSING OR OTHERWISE VISITING THE WEBSITE.

The original language of this Privacy Policy is English. In the case of other translations provided by iCure, the English version shall prevail.

This Privacy Policy is incorporated into and is subject to, the iCure Terms of Use.

1. Definitions

Administrative Data: means Personal Data such as the Name, Email, and Phone in order to perform administrative tasks like Invoicing or contacting the Client (if support is needed).

Cookies: means text files placed on a computer to collect standard internet log information and visitor behavior information. When you visit a website, they may collect information from a computer automatically through cookies or similar technology (for further information please refer to our Cookies Notice, visit allaboutcookies.org.).

Data controller: means the natural or legal person, public authority, agency or other body which, alone or jointly with others, determines the purposes and means of the processing of personal data; where the purposes and means of such processing are determined by Union or Member State law, the controller or the specific criteria for its nomination may be provided for by Union or Member State law.

Data processor: means a natural or legal person, public authority, agency or other body which processes personal data on behalf of the controller.

Personal Data: means any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person (‘data subject’); an identifiable natural person is one who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identifier such as a name, an identification number, location data, an online identifier or to one or more factors specific to the physical, physiological, genetic, mental, economic, cultural or social identity of that natural person.

Processing: means any operation or set of operations which is performed on personal data or on sets of personal data, whether or not by automated means, such as collection, recording, organisation, structuring, storage, adaptation or alteration, retrieval, consultation, use, disclosure by transmission, dissemination or otherwise making available, alignment or combination, restriction, erasure or destruction.

Visitor: means the natural person that submits their Personal Data through our contact form; and/or sends us an email; and/or cookies have been implemented.

All other undefined terms used in this Agreement have the meaning from our Terms and Conditions and the General Data Protection Regulation of the Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of 27 April 2016 (GDPR).

2. Concerning your Personal Data

For this website, iCure collects and determines the use and the purpose of any Personal Data uploaded by the visitor, therefore iCure is defined as the Data Controller according to the GDPR.

2.1 Contact Form

iCure collects Administrative Data that the Visitor completed in our contact form available through our Website.

The Administrative Data that Visitor provides to iCure on this contact form are the First name, the last name, the working e-mail address, the name of your organization, and other Personal Data that the Visitor included in the description of its work.

iCure processes these Administrative Data on the lawful basis of the Visitor’s consent (Article 6, 1. a) of the GDPR).

iCure uses these Administrative Data to perform administrative tasks like contacting the Visitor who completed the contact form, to better understand your needs and interests, and to provide you with better service.

2.2 Email

The Visitor can contact iCure through contact@icure.com to get any information about the Company or new job positions. In this email, the Visitor includes his Name, mail address, and any other Personal Data.

iCure processes these Personal Data on the lawful basis of the Visitor’s consent (Article 6, 1. a) of the GDPR).

iCure uses these Personal Data to answer any request from the Visitor and to consider the Visitor’s job application that they sent us by email.

2.3 Newsletters

iCure offers newsletters to provide you with updates, promotional communications, and offers related to our products and services. If you wish to receive our newsletters, we will collect and process your Personal Data for this specific purpose.

iCure processes these Personal Data on the lawful basis of the Visitor’s consent (Article 6, 1. a) of the GDPR). By subscribing to our Newsletters, you explicitly consent to the use of your Personal Data for direct marketing purposes, including the sending of promotional communications and offers by email.

If you do not want your Personal Data to be further processed for direct marketing purposes, you have the right to withdraw your consent at any time, free of charge and without having to provide any justification, by contacting iCure.

3. Security

iCure has implemented appropriate technical and organizational measures to safeguard your Personal Data against any accidental or illicit destruction, loss, modification, deterioration, usage, access, divulgation, and any other unauthorized processing of your Personal Data. We make every effort to protect personal information. However, you should always be careful when you submit personal or confidential information about yourself on any website, including our website.

4. The data retention period and the conditions for deletion

iCure will not retain your Personal Data, as collected, and processed in accordance with this Privacy Policy, for a period longer than necessary to fulfill the purposes described above.

For the Administrative Data from the contact form completed by the Visitor (as described in section 2.1 of this Privacy Policy), these Data shall be stored for a maximum period of 1 month from the completion of the form.

For the Personal Data from the Email completed by the Visitor (as described in section 2.2 of this Privacy Policy), these Data shall be stored for a maximum period of 2 months from the completion of the form.

For the Personal Data from the Newsletters completed by the Visitor (as described in section 2.3 of this Privacy Policy), these Data shall be stored for a maximum period of 11 months from the date of your consent or until you withdraw it.

5. Your rights

You are entitled to access your Personal Data processed by iCure and request their modification or erasure if it is incorrect or unnecessary. To exercise your rights, you may get in touch with iCure by using the electronic contact form available on our website or send a written and signed request to iCure at the email address privacy@icure.com with a copy of your ID or other identification documents, and any document proving that you are the data subject.

In general, where applicable, you also have the right to withdraw consent to the processing at any time. This withdrawal does not affect the lawfulness of processing based on consent made prior to such withdrawal. In certain cases, you also have the right to data portability. Those rights can be exercised by following the abovementioned procedure.

You have the right to lodge a complaint with a supervisory authority, in the Member State of the European Union of your usual place of residence, your place of work, or the place where the violation occurred, if you consider that the processing of personal data relating to you infringes Data Protection Law.

Please, note that the term of processing of such request can take up to one month. Contact: privacy@icure.com

6. Modification

iCure expressly reserves the right to modify this Privacy Policy and you undertake to regularly review the Privacy Policy. By amending the Privacy Policy, iCure will consider your legitimate interests. You will receive a notification if the Privacy Policy is modified. By continuing to actively use the iCure Services after such notification, you acknowledge that you have read the modifications to the Privacy Policy.

7. Information Sharing

Our employees and/or authorized contractors are the people in charge of the Data Processing.

iCure does not sell, rent, or lease any individual’s personal information or lists of email addresses to anyone for marketing purposes, and we take commercially reasonable steps to maintain the security of this information.

However, iCure reserves the right to supply any such information to any organization into which iCure may merge in the future or to which it may make any transfer in order to enable a third party to continue part or all of its mission.

We also reserve the right to release personal information to protect our systems or business when we reasonably believe you to be in violation of our Terms of Use and Privacy Policy or if we reasonably believe you to have initiated or participated in any illegal activity.

In addition, please be aware that in certain circumstances, iCure may be obligated to release your personal information pursuant to judicial or other government subpoenas, warrants, or other orders.

8. Links to other Websites

This Website may provide links to third-party websites (Instagram and Linkedin) for the convenience of our users. If you access those links, you will leave this website. iCure does not control these third-party websites and cannot represent that their policies and practices will be consistent with this Privacy Policy. For example, other websites may collect or use personal information about you in a manner different from that described in this document. Therefore, you should use other websites with caution and do so at your own risk. We encourage you to review the privacy policy of any website before submitting personal information.

9. Cookies

To get more information on how iCure uses Matomo’s cookies, please check our Cookie Notice.

10. Contact

Please contact us with any questions or comments about this Policy, your Personal Data, and our use and disclosure practices by email at privacy@icure.com If you have any concerns or complaints about this Policy or your Personal Data, you may contact our DPO at privacy@icure.com.

Please, note that the term of processing of such request can take up to one month.

iCure SA

Contact : privacy@icure.com

Last update: July the 26th, 2023.

Information Security Policy

www.iCure.com

1. Introduction

The iCure universe is built on trust. Guaranteeing the confidentiality of the data that are entrusted to us is our highest priority.

The Information Security Policy of iCure abstracts the security concept that permeates every activity and abides by the ISO 27001:2013 requirements for Information Security, so that we ensure the security of the data that iCure and its clients manage.

Every employee, contractor, consultant, supplier and client of iCure is bound by our Information Security Policy.

2. Our Policy

iCure is committed to protecting the confidentiality, integrity and availability of the service it provides and the data it manages. iCure also considers protecting the privacy of its employees, partners, suppliers, clients and their customers as a fundamental security aspect.

iCure complies with all applicable laws and regulations regarding the protection of information assets and voluntarily commits itself to the provisions of the ISO 27001:2013.

3. Information Security Definitions

Confidentiality refers to iCure’s ability to protect information against disclosure. Attacks, such as network reconnaissance, database breaches or electronic eavesdropping or inadvertent information revealing through poor practices.

Integrity is about ensuring that information is not tampered with during or after submission. Data integrity can be compromised by accident or on purpose, by evading intrusion detection or changing file configurations to allow unwanted access.

Availability requires organizations to have up-and-running systems, networks, and applications to guarantee authorized users’ access to information without any interruption or waiting. The nature of data entrusted to us requires a higher-than-average availability.

Privacy is the right of individuals to control the collection, use, and disclosure of their personal information. Our privacy policies are based on the GDPR(https://gdpr-info.eu/) and can be augmented by added requirements of specific clients or law areas.

4. Risk Assessment

The main threats iCure is facing as a company are:

  1. Data Theft;
  2. Data Deletion;
  3. Denial of Service attacks;
  4. Malware;
  5. Blackmail and Extortion.

As providers of a solution used by developers active in Healthcare, we also have to anticipate the risks of:

  1. Attacks on our clients’ data, which could lead to major social damages and a loss of trust in our solution;
  2. Abuse of our solution by ill-intentioned clients, that could impact the quality of the service provided to the rest of our clients.

The motivation of the attackers in the latter cases can range from financial gain to political or ideological motivations.

A last risk is linked to the nature of the healthcare data we handle. We must ensure, that the data we handle are not used for purposes other than those for which they were collected:

A piece of data collected from a patient for the purpose of a medical consultation should not be available to third parties, not even a government agency.

5. Risk Management

The main principles we apply to manage the risks we face are:

  1. Confidentiality by design: All sensitive data is encrypted end-to-end before being stored in our databases. We do not have any access to the data we store. Our client’s customers are the only ones who can decrypt the data we store.
  2. Anonymization by design: Healthcare information that has to be stored unencrypted is always anonymized using end-to-end encryption scheme. This means that the link between the healthcare and administrative information must be encrypted.

Those two principles allow us to minimize the risks of data theft, blackmail, extortion, and coercion by government agency.

  1. Multiple real-time replicas, with automatic failover: We use a distributed database architecture to ensure that our data is available at all times. We use a master-master architecture, each data is replicated at least 3 times. Snapshots are taken every day to ensure that we can restore the data in case of a malevolent deletion event.
  2. Automatic password rotations: no single password can be used for more than 48 hours. Passwords are automatically rotated every 24 hours. In case of a password leak, we can limit the window of opportunity for an attack.

Those two principles allow us to minimise the risks of data deletion, denial of service attacks, and malware.

  1. Minimization of the attack surface: we deploy our systems in the most minimal way. We only expose the network services that are strictly necessary.
  2. Strict dependency management: we only use open-source software that is regularly updated and audited by the community. We favor dependency management software and providers that minimize the risk of supply chain poisoning.

Those two principles allow iCure to minimise the risks of intrusion by vulnerability exploit or supply chain attacks, two risks that could lead to data theft or data deletion.

6. Further Information

This policy is valid as of November 10th, 2022. For futher information please connect with us at privacy@icure.com

Impressum

iCure SA

Rue de la Fontaine 7, 1204 Geneva, Switzerland

CHE-270.492.477

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